The Bachelor of Medical Laboratory Science (BMLSc) degree was introduced in 1992, to meet the needs of the medical diagnostic laboratory profession for a science-based academic qualification. The four-year programme includes a comprehensive grounding in health sciences and specialised training in the various laboratory testing disciplines, such as microbiology, biochemistry, and haematology. Most candidates enter the degree programme through the University of Otago Health Sciences First Year course. Graduates can expect to gain early recognition and registration as medical laboratory scientists in New Zealand, and can also work in most other countries. Medical laboratory scientists play a major part in helping to diagnose and treat diseases. There is an increasing shortage of medical laboratory scientists worldwide. There are also many opportunities for postgraduate study, either in medical laboratory science, or in one of the related health sciences such as forensic pathology, or molecular pathology.